Approach considerations for the management of strangulation in the emergency department

While this research paper looks at several reasons for being choked or strangled, there is a section that pertains to LEOs. 

Biomechanics of Lethal Force Encounters

Great data on movement times to get a weapon online. Use this research to support your training, and enhance your OIS, or IA investigations.

Command Sequence in Police Encounters: Searching for a Linguistic Fingerprint

How are you training officers to talk and give commands? Is it supported by research? Words have meaning and how we talk can improve our de-escalation tactics.

Command Types Use in Police Encounters

Are you training officers on how best to Alpha?

Use research to support your training when it comes to helping officers learn good communication skills.

De-escalating Threat: The Psychophysiology of Police Decision Making

Police officers are required to make rapid, high-stakes decisions on a routine basis. Scientific research on making decisions during threatening situations is key. This is de-escalation in the "heat of the moment". It is so easy to de-escalate a person who wants to be calmed.  A good resource to discover how one processes information.

Effects of Personal Body Armor on Functional Movement Capability

The tact vest or duty vest an officer wears alters his ability to move. This has an impact on the speed at which an officer can tactically reposition or get off the X.  As supervisors who review an officer's use of force this comes into play as to how well we place ourselves in the officer's duty gear not just his shoes. 

“Engineering Resilience” Into Split-Second Shoot/No Shoot Decisions: The Effect of Muzzle-Position

Looks at the pros and cons of high and low-ready positions. The results demonstrate that officers can significantly improve shoot/no-shoot decision-making based on weapon position. Great research for police instructors.

Fatigue Threshold

An officer's fitness level plays an important factor in how he or she perceives a threat. Click on the link to view subject matter related to the use of force and physical fitness.

Inattentional blindness for a gun during a simulated police vehicle stop.

Overall, 58% of the trainees and 33% of the officers failed to notice a gun positioned in full view on the passenger dashboard. People can experience inattentional blindness for a potentially dangerous object in a naturalistic real-world context, even when noticing that object would change how they perform their primary task and even when their training focuses on awareness of potential threats.

In Custody Death: Peer-Review Research Cheat Sheet

Before making a policy telling officers to not put their knees on a person read the scientific-based research to make an informed decision.

Kinematic Analysis of Naive Shooters in Common Law Enforcement Encounters

Great research that came out in 2022, looks at how fast a person can shoot during eight common shooting motions.

This is useful for those who are police trainers and those who investigate UoF events.

Non-Compliance Indicators

Non-Compliance Indicators: Verbal or non-verbal cues inconsistent with compliance within the context of the officer-civilian interaction.

Non-compliance indicators are a more professional means to view a person’s actions since they can be caused by criminal or non-criminal reasons. To view behavior as pre-assaultive cues, assumes a criminal intent, and does not take into consideration non-criminal actions.

Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness

Looking to learn how and why people make the decisions they make? This is an excellent source for you. If you are a use-of-force trainer, IA investigator, or de-escalation instructor you may want to use this as a source for your needs within the profession. 

Police legitimacy in context: an exploration of “soft” power in police custody in England

The purpose of this paper is to examine how police authority – in its “soft” form – is used and understood by staff and detainees in police custody in England, examining how these meanings are shaped by this unique police setting. This is a great de-escalation resource.

Putting Feelings Into Words: Affect Labeling as Implicit Emotion Regulation

Great resource as to why police officers should label the negative emotions we are witnessing from the person we are wanting to help. This is de-escalation.

Resisting Arrest: Analysis of Different Prone Body Positions on Time to Stand and Engage

PURPOSE: Determine differences between participants' time from four prone positions to a standing athletic position which would then prepare the participant to engage or run from the officer, similar to what could be seen during an interaction between police and detainees.
  CONCLUSION: Previous data has indicated the average time for an officer to draw their weapon is 1.5 s. In this study, participants were able to rise from the four prone position variations to an athletic position in ~2 s or less. As reaction time could influence an officer’s safety, the PPUAC position seems to require to most time for a detainee to stand and engage an officer.

The safety of sportive chokes: a cross-sectional survey-based study

A peer-reviewed research paper surveyed 4,000+ individuals, 30% of whom had 5+ years of grappling experience. The conclusion is what we already know. VNR is a safe technique.

Time to unconsciousness from sportive chokes in fully resisting highly trained combatants

This research looked at several chokes and concluded most are effective in 10 seconds or less.

What Are The Pros & Cons Of Training Officers to Slap the Mat?

Cops are often taught to slap the mat when falling backward to disperse the energy from a backward fall. However, most of us don't fall onto a flat, safe surface like a mat-covered floor in training. Instead, we find ourselves on surfaces that can cause injuries.

Why is the Suspect Shot in the Back?

Great data on movement times for the suspect to move and shoot.